INTEGRATION OF FARMERS AND PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN THE AQUACULTURE VALUE CHAIN IN TOCANTINS, BRAZIL
Most of the fish farmed by small scale Brazilian fish farmers in Brazil is sold directly to local markets without passing through a processing industry. The integration between small-scale fish farmers and the processing industry is restricted to few cooperatives, mainly in the southern region. Although many fish processing plants are operating in different regions, most producers do not have access to them. The lack of integration creates several problems, including low quality of fish due to the absence of sanitary control, informality, impossibility to access supermarkets, and low added value. This paper is based on a case study of aquaculture in the Brazilian state of Tocantins, by using the Global Value Chain approach. The methodology consists of a qualitative process based on face-to-face interviews with value chain agents. The main results indicate that the processing industries are increasing their own production and implementing supply contracts with large producers. More vertical governance is emerging with a high level of control by the industries. Thus, many small-scale fish farmers are being excluded from the value chain.
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