Influence of maturity and harvest region on the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of oils derived from macauba fruits




Acrocomia aculeata, Carotenoids, Fatty acids , Triacylglycerol, Chemical composition


Macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) is a good source of vegetable oil in tropical America. Its fruits are highly suitable for biodiesel, cosmetics and food production owing to the high quality of its oil. However, the influence of maturity and harvest region on the quality of oils is not known. Thus, the chemical composition and physicochemical properties oils extracted from the macauba palm fruit at two regions of Minas Gerais and different maturity stage were investigated. C16:0 and C18:1 were the most abundant fatty acids in the mesocarp oil. C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1 prevailed in the kernel oil. The High-Resolution Gas Chromatography analysis revealed triacylglycerols (TGs) with equivalent carbon numbers (CN) ranging between 28 and 54. TGs composed of long-chain fatty acids prevailed in the mesocarp oil (CN52 and CN54). On the other hand, the kernel showed a more complex lipid profile, containing TGs with CN between 30 and 54. The lipid content in the oils increased significantly with the ripening of the fruit and the harvest regions. Furthermore, changes in physicochemical properties were observed for both oils depending on the stage of maturity and harvest point. Macauba oils can be used in several industries, such as food and cosmetics. Thus, for its best use, the physicochemical properties of greatest interest should be evaluated in order to identify the ideal cultivation region and maturity stage.


Não há dados estatísticos.


ALQUEZAR, B et al. Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit maturation in the red-fleshed orange mutant Cara Cara. Phytochemistry, v. 69, n. 10, p. 1997–2007, 2008.

AMARAL, Fabiano et al. Extração e caracterização qualitativa do óleo da polpa e amendoas de frutos de Macaúba [Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq) Lodd. ex Mart] coletada na região de Botucatu - SP. Energia na Agricultura, v. 26, 2011.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 21st Editioned. Gaithersburg: AOAC International, 2019.

AOCS. Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS. 7th. ed. Urban, IL: American Oil Chemists’Society, 2017.

BORA, P S; ROCHA, R V M. Macaiba palm: Fatty and amino acids composition of fruits macaiba. Ciencia y Tecnologia Alimentaria, v. 4, n. 3, p. 158-162, 2004.

BRAZIL. Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. (ANVISA) Resolução RDC n° 270, 2005. Aprova o Regulamento Técnico para óleos vegetais, gorduras vegetais e creme vegetal. [S. l.], 2005.

CAO, Weiliang; HAN, Hengwen; ZHANG, Jingchang. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil using supercritical methanol and co-solvent. Fuel, v. 84, n. 4, p. 347-351, 2005.

CICONINI, Gabrielly et al. Biometry and oil contents of Acrocomia aculeata fruits from the Cerrados and Pantanal biomes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 45, p. 208-214, 2013.

COIMBRA, Michelle Cardoso; JORGE, Neuza. Characterization of the Pulp and Kernel Oils from Syagrus oleracea, Syagrus romanzoffiana, and Acrocomia aculeata. Journal of Food Science, v. 76, n. 8, p. C1156-C1161, 2011.

COIMBRA, Michelle C.; JORGE, Neuza. Fatty acids and bioactive compounds of the pulps and kernels of Brazilian palm species, guariroba (Syagrus oleraces), jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana) and macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, v. 92, n. 3, p. 679-684, 2012.

DEL RÍO, José C. et al. Chemical composition and thermal behavior of the pulp and kernel oils from macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata) fruit. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 84, p. 294-304, 2016.

DESSIMONI-PINTO, Nísia Andrade Vilela et al. Características físico-químicas da amêndoa de macaúba e seu aproveitamento na elaboração de barras de cereais. Brazilian Journal of Food and Nutrition, v. 21, no.1, p. 79-86, 2010.

EVARISTO, Anderson Barbosa et al. Harvest and post-harvest conditions influencing macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) oil quality attributes. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 85, p. 63-73, 2016.

HIANE, P A et al. Bocaiuva Acrocomia Aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd., pulp and kernel oils: characterization and fatty acid composition. Brazilian Journal Food Technology, v. 8, p. 256-259, 2005.

HIGBY, William K. A simplified method for determination of some the carotenoid distribuition in natural and carotene fortified orange juice. Journal of Food Science, v. 27, p. 42-49, 1962.

JOLAYEMI, Olusola S; AJATTA, Mary A; ADEGEYE, Abimbola A. Geographical discrimination of palm oils (Elaeis guineensis) using quality characteristics and UV-visible spectroscopy. Food Science & Nutrition, v. 6, n. 4, p. 773-782, 2018.

KNOTHE, G. et al. The Biodiesel Handbook. 2nd Editioed. Champaign, Illinois:, 2010.

LESCANO, C H et al. Nutrients content, characterization and oil extraction from Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. fruits. African Journal of Food Science, v. 9, n. 3, p. 113-119, 2015.

LIEB, Veronika. et al. Fatty acids and triacylglycerols in the mesocarp and kernel oils of maturing Costa Rican Acrocomia aculeata fruits. NFS Journal, v. 14-15, p. 6-13, 2019.

MACHADO, Wesley et al. Evaluation of two fruit ecotypes (totai and sclerocarpa) of macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata). Industrial Crops and Products, v. 63, p. 287-293, 2015. MAGALHÃES, Kassiana Teixeira et al. The chemical, thermal and textural characterization of fractions from Macauba kernel oil. Food Research International, v. 130, n. October 2019, p. 108925, 2020.

MARTY, I et al. Ethylene regulation of carotenoid accumulation and carotenogenic gene expression in colour-contrasted apricot varieties (Prunus armeniaca). Journal of Experimental Botany, v. 56, n. 417, p. 1877-1886, 2005.

MOURTZINIS, S.; et al. Corn and soybean yield response to tillage, rotation, and nematicide seed treatment. Crop Science, v. 57, p. 1704-1712, 2017.

ORSAVOVA, Jana; et al. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids. Int J Mol Sci, v. 16, n. 6, p. 12871-12890, 2015.

PIRES, Thiago Pereira et al. Ecophysiological traits of the macaw palm: A contribution towards the domestication of a novel oil crop. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 44, p. 200-210, 2013.

RAMOS, Maria Isabel L et al. Bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) Improved Vitamin A Status in Rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 55, n. 8, p. 3186-3190, 2007.

RAMOS, M I et al. Qualidade nutricional da polpa de bocaiuva Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ciência Tecnologia Alimentar, n. 28, p. 1-5, 2008.

SILVA, GISELE CRISTINA RABELO; ANDRADE, MARIA HELENA CAÑO. Development and simulation of a new oil extraction process from fruit of macauba palm tree. Journal of Food Process Engineering, v. 36, n. 1, p. 134-145, 2011.

SOUZA, Gredson Keiff et al. Assessment of the Physicochemical Properties and Oxidative Stability of Kernel Fruit Oil from the Acrocomia totai Palm Tree. JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, v. 96, n. 1, p. 51-61, 2019.

SOUZA, Joyce Nascimento e et al. Edaphic and climatic control of macaúba palm seed bank dynamics. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 141, 2019.

TILAHUN, Wogayehu Worku et al. Increase in oil content and changes in quality of macauba mesocarp oil along storage. Ocl, v. 26, 2019.

TRENTINI, Caroline Portilho et al. Low-pressure solvent extraction of oil from macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) pulp: characterization of oil and defatted meal. Ciência Rural, v. 46, p. 725-731, 2016.

TRENTINI, Caroline Portilho et al. Oil extraction from macauba pulp using compressed propane. Journal of Supercritical Fluids, v. 126, p. 72-78, 2017.

VALERIO, Pedro Prates; FRIAS, Jesus Maria; CREN, Erika Cristina. Thermal degradation kinetics of carotenoids: Acrocomia aculeata oil in the context of nutraceutical food and bioprocess technology. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2020.

WANNES, Aidi Wissem et al. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts from myrtle (Myrtus communis var. italica L.) leaf, stem and flower. Food and Chemical Toxicology, v. 48, n. 5, p. 1362-1370, 2010.




Como Citar

Silva, G. C. R. (2023). Influence of maturity and harvest region on the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of oils derived from macauba fruits. Revista Engenharia Na Agricultura - REVENG, 31(Contínua), 64–75.